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422                             POLITICAL  SCIENCE.
ought to be a rigorous rule that the drunken, the dissolute
the shiftless, shall not be put on an equality with the better
class of paupers. Hard work must be imposed on the able-
bodied. Mendicancy ought to be suppressed and discour-
aged by refusing help to street-beggars. Imposture in
obtaining relief should be severely dealt with. The safety,
itself, of the community, if nothing more, should be protected
by severe laws against the "tramps" that now infest town
and country in the northern United States.
5.   Whether the government of a country, besides assisting
its own disabled soldiers and sailors, ought to found hospitals
for various ills, as for th£ deaf and dumb, for the blind, for
the insane and the idiotic, for orphans and widows, for the
cure and against the spread of various contagious and noisome
diseases, will depend upon the amount of permanent endow-
ments supplied by private persons, and on the answer to the
question whether government aid will dry up the springs of
private charity.    It seems to devolve especially on the state
to provide relief when deadly epidemics sweep through aland,
and to extend their agency to the cure of pests falling on do-
mestic animals.    The spread of such diseases the government
alone is able to prevent.
6.   The prevention of a great part of human suffering is to
be sought in higher moral and religious cultivation of individ-
ual and of family life.    Here we come to the important and
somewhat difficult subject of the relation of the state to gen-
eral morals.
IX. I assume here, as having been proved in the second
The-states duty Part of this work, that public law may prohibit
as to public morals. and punish acts regarded by the community as
immoral, the evil of which extends beyond the individual, or,
according to all experience, is likely to extend hereafter.
Here it is of small importance to decide whether these classes
of immoral conduct are evil in themselves, or only in their
consequences ; whether they are evil in the use or only in the