438 . POLITICAL SCIENCE. (Xen., Mem., ii., 2, 13), which, however, was merely an act of self-defence on the part of the people. The action referred to by Xenophon can be no other than the public suit of ill- usage towards parents (tfa/ceocw ryoviw). This could be brought against children who abused their parents by word or deed, when they refused them food, being able to provide it, and when they refused to bury them. The first of these acts implies more than immorality; the second, on account of the close family tie, may be looked on as almost a viola- tion of right; the third was not only ungrateful, but irreli- gious. It is said also that in the mutual aid societies at Athens this action of ingratitude could be brought against a member. This kind of suits is a very obscure subject; but, if there were a suit answering to this title, it could be explained on the ground that the mutuality in those clubs conferred an obliga- tion upon each of the persons benefited.* The only thing that I know of in Roman law which looks like the treatment of ingratitude as a wrong to be estimated or punished, is a provision of the lex ^Elia Sentia, passed in A.D. 3, which gave the patron the right—besides that of relegating the freedman beyond the hundredth mile from Rome (Tac., Annal., xiii., 26), of accusing him ut ingratum. This law then qualified mamumission, and the duties owed to the pa- tron almost turned into claims.f * Comp. Meier u. Schoem., Att. Proc., pp. 448, 449 ; and for the suits against members of thfc same cpavos, K. F. Hermann, Gr. Staatsalt., § 146, 9. f Com. Dig., xl., 9, 30. For ingratitude as a ground of public prosecution among the Persians, comp. Xen. Cyrop., i., 2, 7. The laws of Manu lay a fine on one who forsakes father, mother, wife, or son, viii., 388 (p. 281 of Houghton's ed. of Jones's transl.). The in- pfficiosum testamenturn (§ 48), as defined by J. Paulus, Sentent., iv., 5 (in Huschke's Jurispr. Antejustin.), is that which, " frustra liberis, ex heredatis, non ex officio pietatis videtur esse conscriptum." It is the want of pietas, as in the case of a freedman, which constitutes the injury to the natural heir.