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440                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
powers; state, family, and individual alike, feeling need of
such protection. Nor was it divine power to protect, and
fear of divine wrath, if unpropitiated, that alone led to wor-
ship ; but worship was natural, a natural want, as necessary
as human society. To this the Christian religion adds the
conviction that it reveals the perfection of character, and the
means for attaining at once to a perfect character and a
harmony with God; and that the state perceives such a
character, formed by religion, and by religion only, to be
as necessary to make the citizen a perfect citizen, as the man
a perfect man. The state reaches its highest aims only by
something that lies out of itself, and thus seeks to get all the
aid possible for itself from this source.
In considering the relations of religion to the state, we
shall divide the religions into three classes. The first class
may comprise those which were made up'chiefly of worship,
external forms, and mythology, which had no vital connection
with political institutions, and expressed a part of the truths
of natural religion in a polytheistic form. Most of the heathen
religions belong here. Another class of natural religions
consist of such as are organically connected with the state by
means of institutions of sacred origin. Here belong the re-
ligions of caste and hereditary'classes—the Brahminical and
Egyptian—the religion of Iran, and perhaps that of the Druids
in the Celtic race, with the Mexican and Peruvian. In the
third class may be included Judaism, Mohammedanism, and
Christianity, the three monotheistic systems of the world.
The first class of polytheistic religions, apart from some hoary
myths, took their form in the mythological age in the coun-
tries where they grew up, or else were borrowed in part from
surrounding nations. These mythologies contain in them-
selves very little of which the state could make use for its
purposes of political training. The second class consists of
those which moulded or transformed the states where they
flourished by means of religious institutions. These have
the most intimate connection with the state, but were on that
account essentially local. Brahminism, for instance, could not