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spread much beyond India, because, to introduce its institu-
tions, would require a complete remodelling of society, which
existing interests would oppose ; while Buddhism, having no
such fixed institutions, was able to spread over various races.
In the third class are embraced three religions which spread
chiefly by ideas of the spiritual world, and could be com-
bined with any political forms; thus, Judaism in the course
of time had several political forms, and could propagate it-
self in various parts of the earth. But they differ greatly in
their diffusive nature and power of associating with different
political ideas. Judaism kept the descendants of Jacob to-
gether, by its faith, its rites, and the religious centre which its
rites required, but has kept its ground in the world as much
by the hardening influence of persecution, and the brotherly
feeling between its members, as by its own vital power.
Mohammedanism has something of the same character. It
is somewhat diffusive and somewhat capable of combining
with various polities, yet has had an inclination towards des-
potical government, and thrives best not far from the place
where it had its origin, and where its pilgrims turn their steps.
Christianity, throwing off the fetters o.f place by its sublime
doctrines of a universal Father, and a Saviour for all mankind,
can subsist under every form of government. Overturning
nothing, it transforms everything. Hence its infinite rich-
ness of manifestation. With almost no philosophy, it gives
birth to manifold philosophies and theologies. With the
simplest possible institutions, it can enter into union with a
great variety of institutions. With a certain number of fixed
moral and religious verities, it gives birth, in connection with
human reason, to a large number of sects, which, as men are,
have been unable to subsist side by side in peace. These
sects are multiplied by the claim of possessing the only true
Christian faith or institutions. Thus, under Christianity, the
problems which the state has to solve, according to the
principles on which states have acted, have become more
complicated than those of any other religion, owing to the
freeness of its development.