THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION. 441 spread much beyond India, because, to introduce its institu- tions, would require a complete remodelling of society, which existing interests would oppose ; while Buddhism, having no such fixed institutions, was able to spread over various races. In the third class are embraced three religions which spread chiefly by ideas of the spiritual world, and could be com- bined with any political forms; thus, Judaism in the course of time had several political forms, and could propagate it- self in various parts of the earth. But they differ greatly in their diffusive nature and power of associating with different political ideas. Judaism kept the descendants of Jacob to- gether, by its faith, its rites, and the religious centre which its rites required, but has kept its ground in the world as much by the hardening influence of persecution, and the brotherly feeling between its members, as by its own vital power. Mohammedanism has something of the same character. It is somewhat diffusive and somewhat capable of combining with various polities, yet has had an inclination towards des- potical government, and thrives best not far from the place where it had its origin, and where its pilgrims turn their steps. Christianity, throwing off the fetters o.f place by its sublime doctrines of a universal Father, and a Saviour for all mankind, can subsist under every form of government. Overturning nothing, it transforms everything. Hence its infinite rich- ness of manifestation. With almost no philosophy, it gives birth to manifold philosophies and theologies. With the simplest possible institutions, it can enter into union with a great variety of institutions. With a certain number of fixed moral and religious verities, it gives birth, in connection with human reason, to a large number of sects, which, as men are, have been unable to subsist side by side in peace. These sects are multiplied by the claim of possessing the only true Christian faith or institutions. Thus, under Christianity, the problems which the state has to solve, according to the principles on which states have acted, have become more complicated than those of any other religion, owing to the freeness of its development.