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444                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.

was the doctrine that the bishop of Rome, as the representa-
tive of unity in the church, and the interpreter of its doctrines
was the supreme arbiter, with power to issue orders enforced
by church censures, whenever morality and civil right seemed
to conflict. In these ways, it is plain, the power in the church
and the power in the state could not fail to come into collision,
The whole of the middle ages is filled with the manifestations
of this strife. The relations of the parties were most com-
plicated and difficult. The claims which the mediaeval church
made, though held in abeyance, have never been wholly
abandoned by the Romish church. When the Protestant
churches were formed, they inherited some of the questions
growing out of old relations and old opinions, and these are
still to a certain extent unsettled.


We return to the division of religions which was given
Relations of state above, and propose to consider first the rela-

t tions of religion to the state in the lands where
had little corporate   .     -      ,                      -                .             . -       ,        ,
power.                it had no amalgamation with the body politic,
and little corporate or direct power. In polytheistic coun-
tries, the exclusiveness of a particular kind of worship could
not well go beyond the old possession of special shrines, and
of lands given to temples for the worship of certain gods,
the established public rites, and the traditional worship and
shrines of the clan or of other subordinate divisions of the
people. Where a form of worship had a footing, it was pro-
tected by the state ; but a new and imported religion had no
Especially at rights of its own. At Athens, however, there
Athens and Rome. was a considerable toleration of novel divinities,
unless danger was apprehended from secret unions or myste-
ries. At Rome, religious police, if it may be so called, was
much stricter; and the people, being a religious  even a
superstitious people, the necessity of honoring the gods, the
fear of their displeasure, had great influence until the decay
of the republic. Among the points most worthy of notice,
we mention first , that worship was established in this sense,