448 • POLITICAL SCIENCE. whom they lived. Both religions were, as yet, without the protection of the law, and the adherents of both were spread through the empire. Both, by their exclusive monotheism and aversion to idolatry, rebuked and called forth the hatred of the populace; while the meetings of the Christians at the love-feasts and the Lord's supper gave occasion to malicious stories of grossly sensual practices in secret. The Jews, moreover, were glad -to divert the ill-will of the populace against themselves by joining in the outcry against the Chris- tians. Add to this that the policy of Augustus and his suc- cessor was to keep out foreign religions, strolling astrologers from the east, and practisers of magic as much as possible. Tiberius, it is said by Suetonius (vit. Tib., ^ 36), "checked foreign ceremonies, both ^Egyptian and Judaean rites ; the adherents to these religions being forced to burn their super- stitious vestments with the utensils of their worship." Jewish young men (at Rome) were sent as soldiers into unhealthy provinces, and the other residents of the same nation * lie sent out of the city, threatening them with slavery unless they obeyed. When the Christians were persecuted, the old prac- tice of forbidding religiones illicit^ seems to have justified doing this at first. Afterwards, from the well known letter of Pliny to Trajan (Epist., x., 97), we find that a special edict had been issued against hetceria, brotherhoods or unions, so called in a Greek-speaking province, and answering to sodalitates> also frowned upon at Rome. (ib.y x., 43.) Thus political sus- picion must have been one ground for the persecution in Bithynia, under one of the best emperors. A little before this time it would seem as if atheism itself, i. e., Judaism, in- cluding Christianity, had become a crime, for Dio Cass. tells us (Ixvii., 14) that under Domitian, A.D. 95, the death of Flavius Clemens, then consul, and the banishment of his wife Flavia Domitilla, were procured by the tyrant " on the charge of atheism, on which charge many others were condemned * "Reliquos gentis ejusdem vel similia sectatos." The last words seem to refer to proselytes, not Jews, but of similar faith.