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450                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
eked out in the imperial times by admission fees into the tem-
ples, to the altars, etc. Every priest or college of priests
seems to have had a private treasury. On election into one
of the honorable colleges of priests wealthy men sometimes
paid great contributions.
It may be said in summing up, that the relations between
religion and the state brought religion in the most cultivated
nations of heathenism completely under state control, that
there was an inspection over all religious rites, public or pri-
vate, and that every new worship needed state authority for its
celebration if it would escape the penalties of the law; and
that, notwithstanding the absence of definite religious views
and of instruction respecting the divinities to be worshipped,
public rejection of the gods of the country was a criminal act,
and that mere opinion such as atheism was to some degree
visited with penalties.
If we were to treat our subject on a larger scale, various
shades of practice in regard to foreign religions and in other
respects would appear in the usages of other countries.
Thus, China is perhaps the most tolerant, and has the most
economical state religion of all the nations. The emperor is
the head, the intermediary between the people and heaven,
to whom it pertains to offer to heaven the great annual sacri-
fice. As for the rest, there are connected with the religion no
temples, priests, nor festivals. Toleration is due to indifier-
ence. The Tao doctrine, and Buddhism, which is widespread
among the people, are only endured, if we are not deceived,
without having any legal standing; and the latter has been
at times persecuted. So Christianity, if it should spread,
would be exposed, as the religion of powerful nations, to
persecution, in case the suspicion of the government should
be excited.
2. In the religions of caste, the ministers of religion occupy
Religion and state their places by a law of hereditary descent, and
in lands of caste.      their rights are so imbedded in the state that-
both must exist or perish together.    They stood in India at