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452                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.

those in India, although the system did not have the same
cohesive strength. It is remarkable also that the Celts in
their Druidical system were on the same path which the eastern
nations followed. "The Celtic priesthood/7 says Momm-
sen (Hist, of Rome, iv., 274, Engl. transl.), " or corporation
of the Druids, certainly embraced the British islands and all
Gaul, and perhaps also other Celtic countries, in a common
religious-national bond. It possessed a special head elected
by the priests themselves ; special schools, in which its very
comprehensive tradition was transmitted ; special privileges,
particularly exemption from taxation and military service,
which every class respected ; annual councils, and above all,
a believing people. It may readily be conceived that such
a priesthood attempted to usurp, as it partially did usurp,
the secular government ; where the annual monarchy sub-
sisted, it conducted the elections in the event of an interreg-
num ; it successfully laid claim to the right of excluding in-
dividuals and whole communities from religious and also from
civil society ; it was careful to draw to itself the most impor-
tant civil causes, especially processes as to boundaries and in-
heritance ; it developed an extensive priestly criminal juris-
diction, which was co-ordinate with that of the kings an*d
vergobrets ; * it even claimed the right of deciding on war
and peace. The Gauls were not far removed from an eccle-
siastical state, with its pope and councils, its immunities, inter-
dicts and spiritual courts, only this ecclesiastical state did not
stand aloof from the nations, but was on the contrary pre-
eminently national. "

3. We pass on to consider next the relations between reli-
. Religion and state gion and the state in the three monotheistic re-
in the monotheistic    
religions.               ligions, which, while they differ much between-
themselves, have much also in common.    As for the Jews,
this relation is by no means explained when we call their gov-
* This was an annual magistrate of the Aedui, who had the jus
vita etnecis in his hands.    (Caes., de bell. Gall., i., 16.)