454 POLITICAL SCIENCE. a great part of their worship necessarily ceased on account of its local character, they have kept up their national feeling and worship until the present day. If, in the Jewish religion, state and church were closely united, much more was this the case, in some points, among the Mohammedans. The head of the state here was both Caliph and supreme Imam, both civil and ecclesiastical suc- cessor to Mohammed. And if it had been possible to pre- serve civil unity for ages, such concentration of power, with the help of a fiery zeal urging on to war against unbelievers, might have endangered all Europe as well as Asia. But the dispute as to who ought to be the successor after the assassi- nation of Othman (A.D. 655), with the subsequent murder of AH and his son Husein, led to a permanent division between the adherents of the house of Ali, descendants of the prophet, and the successful party of Moawiyah. The Shiites, Ali's party, in the course of time broached the most extravagant ideas respecting the rights of the Imam belonging to Moham- med's line ; he was appointed by God ; blind obedience was due to him, whatever might be the character of his commands ; he was almost a supernatural being. This union of temporal and spiritual power, checked by heretical sects dividing the empire, by the fanaticism of the dervishes, by the corporation of the Ulemas, having a leading voice in-religion, science, law, and education, and through their explanations of the Koran, is the all-embracing principle of Mohammedan institutions. The religion has nothing in it to kindle love, appealing as it does chiefly to the greatness of God ; but its simple rites, with its monotheism, its faith in Mohammed and the Koran, give it an existence independent of the state, so that when simply tolerated it can manage to live. Towards idolatry, Islam is intolerant, and has no scruple to root it out by the sabre; but, having the same faith in one God with Jews and Chris- tians, holding Moses to be a prophet and Christ higher than a prophet, it finds no difficulty in allowing the monotheistic part of its subjects to live in the enjoyment of their religions tinder its sway.