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454                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
a great part of their worship necessarily ceased on account
of its local character, they have kept up their national feeling
and worship until the present day.
If, in the Jewish religion, state and church were closely
united, much more was this the case, in some points, among
the Mohammedans. The head of the state here was both
Caliph and supreme Imam, both civil and ecclesiastical suc-
cessor to Mohammed. And if it had been possible to pre-
serve civil unity for ages, such concentration of power, with
the help of a fiery zeal urging on to war against unbelievers,
might have endangered all Europe as well as Asia. But the
dispute as to who ought to be the successor after the assassi-
nation of Othman (A.D. 655), with the subsequent murder of
AH and his son Husein, led to a permanent division between
the adherents of the house of Ali, descendants of the prophet,
and the successful party of Moawiyah. The Shiites, Ali's
party, in the course of time broached the most extravagant
ideas respecting the rights of the Imam belonging to Moham-
med's line ; he was appointed by God ; blind obedience was
due to him, whatever might be the character of his commands ;
he was almost a supernatural being. This union of temporal
and spiritual power, checked by heretical sects dividing the
empire, by the fanaticism of the dervishes, by the corporation
of the Ulemas, having a leading voice in-religion, science, law,
and education, and through their explanations of the Koran,
is the all-embracing principle of Mohammedan institutions.
The religion has nothing in it to kindle love, appealing as it
does chiefly to the greatness of God ; but its simple rites, with
its monotheism, its faith in Mohammed and the Koran, give
it an existence independent of the state, so that when simply
tolerated it can manage to live. Towards idolatry, Islam is
intolerant, and has no scruple to root it out by the sabre;
but, having the same faith in one God with Jews and Chris-
tians, holding Moses to be a prophet and Christ higher than
a prophet, it finds no difficulty in allowing the monotheistic
part of its subjects to live in the enjoyment of their religions
tinder its sway.