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the country. It was also the plan adopted by Napoleon I., in
his concordat with the Pope, and in the arrangements, in
1806, by virtue of which the Jews in France were admitted
to new privileges. Of this plan we have nothing to say, save
that if it were adopted, the confession to which it applied
might afterwards be altogether independent of the state ; so
that it would really establish no new relation, but only pro-
vide for such guarantees upon entering into its relation of in-
dependence, as the security of the state is supposed to require.
1.  While the ecclesiastical state existed, that is—in order to
Church in the states assign to it a precise period—from 1201, when
of the Church. the emperor Qtho IV. conceded by oath and
charter to Innocent III. full jurisdiction over large Italian
territories, down to 1870, when the papal dominions were
merged in the kingdom of Italy,* the popes were within their
principality both temporal and spiritual princes; and they
had already claimed, and in part exercised, feudal suzerainty
elsewhere. The jurisdiction over a territory, where they could
be comparatively undisturbed by the emperors, was necessary
—at least, was"thought to be necessary, for independence and
for ecclesiastical sway everywhere alike ; but this gain of secu-
lar principality was one of the leading causes which corrupted
the Roman see. No succession of kings in any European
Christian country has surpassed in worthlessness the popes
from Innocent VIII. to Leo X., inclusive (1484-1521). As
for the rest, the sovereignty over the patrimony of St. Peter
and over other lands acquired afterwards only removed obsta-
cles ; it did not otherwise affect the theory of church power
or the practice under it.
2.  The theory of church power, which the papal church has
Papal theory of re- always distinctly maintained, since it emerged
lations of church and                                            .                               .111                           1
state.                  from the confusion of the middle ages, and even
since the appearance of the pseudo-Isidorian decretals, con-
* Comp. Sugenheim's prize essay, die Ensteh. u. Ausbildung des
Kirchenstaat, 1854. Sugenheim calls the transaction of Otho at
Neuss, near Cologne, June 8, 1203, the magna charta of the eccle-
siastical state, p. 134.