THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION. 459 the country. It was also the plan adopted by Napoleon I., in his concordat with the Pope, and in the arrangements, in 1806, by virtue of which the Jews in France were admitted to new privileges. Of this plan we have nothing to say, save that if it were adopted, the confession to which it applied might afterwards be altogether independent of the state ; so that it would really establish no new relation, but only pro- vide for such guarantees upon entering into its relation of in- dependence, as the security of the state is supposed to require. 1. While the ecclesiastical state existed, that is—in order to Church in the states assign to it a precise period—from 1201, when of the Church. the emperor Qtho IV. conceded by oath and charter to Innocent III. full jurisdiction over large Italian territories, down to 1870, when the papal dominions were merged in the kingdom of Italy,* the popes were within their principality both temporal and spiritual princes; and they had already claimed, and in part exercised, feudal suzerainty elsewhere. The jurisdiction over a territory, where they could be comparatively undisturbed by the emperors, was necessary —at least, was"thought to be necessary, for independence and for ecclesiastical sway everywhere alike ; but this gain of secu- lar principality was one of the leading causes which corrupted the Roman see. No succession of kings in any European Christian country has surpassed in worthlessness the popes from Innocent VIII. to Leo X., inclusive (1484-1521). As for the rest, the sovereignty over the patrimony of St. Peter and over other lands acquired afterwards only removed obsta- cles ; it did not otherwise affect the theory of church power or the practice under it. 2. The theory of church power, which the papal church has Papal theory of re- always distinctly maintained, since it emerged lations of church and . .111 1 state. from the confusion of the middle ages, and even since the appearance of the pseudo-Isidorian decretals, con- y * Comp. Sugenheim's prize essay, die Ensteh. u. Ausbildung des Kirchenstaat, 1854. Sugenheim calls the transaction of Otho at Neuss, near Cologne, June 8, 1203, the magna charta of the eccle- siastical state, p. 134.