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460                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
templates no absolute theocracy, nor absorption of the state
in the church. It was admitted that the powers that be were
ordained of God, and that the subject could not be released
from his obedience, unless the prince committed acts of gross
immorality, or such as had a tendency to injure the church of
God. The unity of the church demanded a primate, and the
primate alone, in the last instance, could judge what was or-
thodox truth and what was immoral or of injury to Christian-
ity. He gained the right of a negative in elections of metro-
politan bishops, and this right by degrees was extended to
other church offices. He had a control in regard to questions
affecting certain family rights, and a dispensation from the
rigid rules of marriage between relatives. There grew up a
body of canonical law, which was acknowledged through
Europe, and the supreme right of discipline expressed itself
in laws and interdicts, and even in absolving subjects from obe-
dience to a prince who would not submit to ecclesiastical de-
crees. Questions relating to religious property were brought
under his jurisdiction; the universities were in a degree
licensed and watched over by him. Several of the princes in
different parts of Europe entered into feudal relations to him;
thus, John of England did homage to Innocent III., who, as
thus becoming the suzerain of England, excommunicated the
barons and declared the magna carta void.
With all this power, which entered into every department
of life, the papal theory admitted a certain Independence of
the state within its sphere. Gregory VII. taught that the
church is of God, while the state-, i.e., royal and imperial
power, is needed to repress human wickedness. <; Who can
doubt that the priests of Christ are to be regarded as fathers
and teachers (patres et magistros) of kings and princes, and
of all believers." Innocent III. wrote to the emperor at
Constantinople that of the two great lights in the heavens the
sun ruled the day and the moon the night. So, in the firma-
ment of the universal church, God made two great dignities,
the pontifical and the regal power. " But that which presides
over the day, that is, over things spiritual, is the greater; that