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over the night, that Is, over carnal things, is the less," the
difference between the two powers being as considerable as
that between sun and moon. Still further he says that " the
Lord left to Peter not only the whole church, but the whole
world (totum seculum), to be governed." Therefore, not only
does the highest and last decision in all affairs pertain to him,
but it is his also to decide who shall have administration in'
general. No acts relating to the church, although for its ad-
vantage, are valid, he further says, unless sanctioned by the
church. Boniface VIII., in the bull " imam sanctam" goes
even farther. Referring to the two swords (Luke, xxii., 38),
which had been long used as symbols of the two powers, and
of which St. Bernard speaks as placed, the one in the pope's,
the other in the emperor's hands, he says that the emperor's
sword is to be drawn only (adnutum etpatientiam sacerdotis)y
according to the will and permission of the priest. The ad-
mission of this dependence of the state on the church is nec-
essary for salvation.*
Thus the theory was strained to its utmost at the very time
of incipient nationalization, when such extravagance could not
but arouse the opposition of nations and kings. It has never
changed since, at least substantially, but policy has generally
prevented its being put forth. The theory grew, and if Bon-
iface could have succeeded, it might have grown into one of
absolute supremacy. Practically it places the two powers in
the world side by side, but to one of them is given that moral
and spiritual control which allows of interference in civil affairs
on such numerous and various occasions that the other has
no real independence.
Protestants claim for the individual the right and duty
to decide for himself on questions of duty against state and
church both. The Roman church decides for itself against
the state on questions affecting the interests of th^ church or
of public morals, and of visiting the state or its head with de-
* Com p. Jacobson, Art, Staat u. Kirche, in Herzog's Encycl., vol.
xxL, 98-139, and Friedberg, definium inter ecclesiam et civitatem re-
gundorum judicio, etc. (1861.) Lib. i., chap, i., esp.  4.