462 POLITICAL SCIENCE. privation of church privileges. And it also claims against the individual the right of deciding over him, on questions of conscience, and of visiting him with censure. Protestant communions, whose discipline is strict, really take the same ground. A man may be shut out from church privileges by a small sect for " using a little wine," when he himself feels no scruples about so doing. It might be thought from this that all religious power stands and must stand in the same relations both towards state and individual. But while this is in one sense true, because all religious associations must establish certain rules of communion, the vast and wide power of the Roman church centered in a single man, who cannot err, if he speaks ex cathedra, places it on different grounds from the protestant sects which are independent of the state, and much more on different ground from protestant established churches which are dependent. Against this theory and the practice under it a large part of Christendom revolted at the reformation, and since that event the papal theory has been for the most part practically suspended in the Catholic nations. A flagrant instance in which the old claims of the church were waived, and at which Innocent III. would have been horror-struck, was the concordat between Leo X. and Francis I. (1515), by which the king acquired the right of nominating bishops, and the old pragmatic sanctions, long grievous to the powers at Rome, were abandoned. The precedent of this departure from the strict principles of the Catholic church has since been fol- lowed elsewhere. 3. We pass on next to that relation of the church to the Church subject to state in which it has little or no independent power and is subject to state policy. The earli- est example of such subjection is found in the Byzantine em- pire, and it goes sometimes under the name of Byzantinism, Here mere despotism of the emperor ruled in both spheres, disturbed or overthrown sometimes in the political sphere by successful insurrections, and resisted in the religious sphere by fanatical monks or others more orthodox than the empe- state.