THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION. 465
teaching in schools or coming within five miles of any city,
corporate town, or parliamentary borough.
We make no comment on these acts, only that they were
in part a revenge for the overthrow of the Episcopal church
by the Presbyterians of the long parliament, who, with most
other Puritans, had the current view of the right and even
duty of the state to set up and defend religion, and were
deterred by no scruple from passing laws against heresy and
dissent. By the toleration act of I William and Mary, and
by subsequent legislation, most of which belongs to the last
fifty years, all this is done away; almost entire religious liber-
ty is now granted to all forms of religious profession, Catholic
and Protestant, and parliament is open to Jews.
The English colonies in America which were first planted,
both episcopal, as Virginia, and puritan (independent or con-
gregationalist), as Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut,
carried the views of the mother country, and of the Jewish
scriptures regarding church and state, into their institutions.
In all, or nearly all of them, laws were passed providing for
the support of the clergy, for the observance of Sunday, and
against Quakers and other heretics. The pilgrim colonies,
according to their view of church order, prevented the legis-
latures or general courts from having any direct control over
the proper ecclesiastical concerns of individual churches.
But in Connecticut a synod set up in 1708 a form of church
order, which was legally enacted by the assembly, as the es-
tablished church order in the colony. There were then no
avowed dissenters. When some years afterwards the dissent-
ers appeared and founded churches, the law allowed them,
instead of paying to the parish churches the quota for sup-
porting religion, to have it made over to their own ministers.
This in substance was the condition of things until 1817, when
this connection of religion and the state was dissolved. The
progress towards complete separation of the two powers in
Massachusetts was somewhat similar. The Baptists in Rhode
Island, where they were the controlling denomination, repu-
diated the theory of the political establishment of religion.