468 POLITICAL SCIENCE. quality, shall be put entirely on alevel with that of individuals. There are many cases in which churches need the protection of the state, and where they come as plaintiffs or as defend- ants before the courts. Of this kind are contracts with minis- ters for their support, the exercise of clerical power, and the question whether certain proceedings are or are not in accor- dance with the constitution of a local church or of a denomina- tion. All church property, even the effects of church censures may be brought before civil tribunals. As this is the only plan possible, when the equality of all bodies of worshippers and the perfect freedom of worship are taken into considera- tion, so thus far it has worked well. There is a plan of adjusting the relations between church and state, in some points resembling this, which has been adopted in another country in quite modern times. Thus, in the charter of Louis XVIII. (1815), it is said that every one "shall receive for his religious worship the same protection, However, the Catholic Apostolic and Roman religion is the religion of the state. The ministers of the Catholic Apos- tolic and Roman religion, and those of other Christian confes- f sions alone receive stipends from the public treasury." In the charter of Louis Philippe (1830), this is repeated, except the declaration that the religion of the state is Catholic. In the constitution of the republic (1848), the words are "the ministers of the religions at present recognized by law, as well as those which may hereafter be recognized, have the right to receive an allowance from the state/' This plan, especially in its last form, makes a difference between the licitce and illicitce religiones, like the legislation of Rome ; and also implies a certain sort of dependence on the state—equal, but equally questionable—for all religious sects. There has been also a tyrannical law, dictated by fear, which prescribes that no association of more than twenty persons, with the object of assembling for religious, political, literary, or other purposes, can be formed without the con- sent of the government, and under conditions which the public authority shall see fit to impose on the society.