472 POLITICAL SCIENCE. the state of a belief in divine powers, then giving the heads of a code applying to all things sacred, then commenting on some of them more at large. The utility of a faith in the gods, he thinks, no one can deny who perceives how fre- quently oaths are used in confirming testimony, and how salutary are the religious sanctions of treaties. In his sum- mary of laws he follows Roman usage and expresses Roman ideas. The main points are that the received religion, its ceremonies and functionaries, are to be maintained in honor, and that the priests or augurs are to have an inspection of all that which belongs to their department. Only once or twice are penalties mentioned. Of perjury, he says that its punish- ment from the gods is to be exitium, from men dedecus. Sacrilege is to be treated as parricide. Incest is to be forbid- den by the priests, with the enforcement of the highest penal- ties. The decisions of the augur, in regard to things unlucky, portentous, and calling for divine wrath, are to be respected, quique non paruerit capital esto. There are to be two classes of public priests, one to preside over ceremonies and sacred rites, another to interpret the utterances of soothsayers who had been declared by the senate and people to have author- ity. There are to be no nocturnal sacred rites of women, ex- cept those which are duly made for the people ; nor are there to be secret rites and initiations, except in the worship of Ceres. No contributions in honor of any god are to be col- lected, except those taken up by the priests of the Idaean mother.* A limit is to be prescribed to the quantity of the precious metals and ivory consecrated to religious purposes. Expense and mourning for the dead are to be kept within bounds. These will give an example of Cicero's religious laws, which show that he would have the system under state control. It does not occur to him to punish opinions, as it did to Plato. As for the rest, there are no profound thoughts in this exposition of his views given by the great orator, * This the law allowed.