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472                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.
the state of a belief in divine powers, then giving the heads
of a code applying to all things sacred, then commenting
on some of them more at large.    The utility of a faith in
the gods, he thinks, no one can deny who perceives how fre-
quently oaths are used  in confirming  testimony, and how
salutary are the religious sanctions of treaties.    In his sum-
mary of laws he follows Roman usage and expresses Roman
ideas.    The main points are that the received religion, its
ceremonies and functionaries, are to be maintained in honor,
and that the priests or augurs are to have an inspection of all
that which belongs to their department.    Only once or twice
are penalties mentioned.    Of perjury, he says that its punish-
ment from the gods is to be exitium,  from men  dedecus.
Sacrilege is to be treated as parricide.    Incest is to be forbid-
den by the priests, with the enforcement of the highest penal-
ties.    The decisions of the augur, in regard to things unlucky,
portentous, and calling for divine wrath, are to be respected,
quique non paruerit capital esto.    There are to be two classes
of public priests, one to preside over ceremonies and sacred
rites, another to interpret the utterances of soothsayers who
had been declared by the senate and people to have author-
ity.    There are to be no nocturnal sacred rites of women, ex-
cept those which are duly made for the people ; nor are there
to be secret rites and  initiations,  except in the worship of
Ceres.    No contributions in honor of any god are to be col-
lected, except those taken up by the priests of the Idaean
mother.*    A limit is to be prescribed to the quantity of the
precious metals and ivory consecrated to religious purposes.
Expense and mourning for the dead are to be kept within
bounds.    These will give an example of Cicero's religious
laws, which show that he would have the system under state
control.    It does not occur to him to punish opinions, as it
did to Plato.    As for the rest, there are no profound thoughts
in this exposition of his views given by the great orator,
* This the law allowed.