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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION.          479
sion of prince and people. " For if all that believe be con-
tained in the name of the church, how should the church be
divided from the commonwealth, when all believe ? " They
are then, personally one society, called a commonwealth for
one reason, a church for others, and for this society there
must be different officers. Difference of officers, secular and
ecclesiastical, is no argument that church and commonwealth
are always separate and independent."
Thus, in a commonwealth of infidels the Christian church
and commonwealth are independent; in the states under
papal jurisdiction, e( there is one society in church and state,
but the bishop of Rome doth divide the body into two, and
suffers not the church to depend on any civil prince ; while in
the realm of England "—he might have added in parts of Ger-
many and Switzerland, and in the Scandinavian countries—
" one society is both church and commonwealth, which it was
not among the heathen, and, unlike the Catholic states, de-
pendent on the chief in the commonwealth.1'
There seem to be several weak points in this exposition.
The first is that if there be in a country a minority of heathen,
they are of the state^but not of the church, and must continue
so unless it be right to drive them out or force them to be-
come nominally Christians. Another is that, if the two,
church and state, are composed of exactly the same persons,
it does not of course follow, that church and state are one.
Nor can any argument be drawn from the evil of the coexist-
ence of two powers, both of which have claims upon the con-
science, for seeming collisions of obligations are always taking
place. Even in a state religion, the limitations on the power
of the prince (or supreme authority) may be such as to give a
practical independence to the church in doctrine, worship,
discipline, including induction into office and authority, as
well in exclusively ecclesiastical matters as in official relations
to a parish or see. On the other hand, if the prince may be
at heart an enemy of the church, or an unbeliever indifferent
to its interests, a theory that would give him any important
control over the church cannot be truly a Christian one. The