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480                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
church ought to be controlled by those who have a Christian
But to return to Hooker's doctrine. Church and state bein<*
one, and the ruler being head over both, whence does he
derive his power ? Hooker, before Grotius, conceives of a
'contract in which, according to certain conditions, he is
appointed to his office for himself and his line by the people
(comp. § 61 u. s.). According to this view, church and state,
or the nation acting in both capacities, ought to consent to the
introduction of a new line of rulers, when the existing one
runs out, or when the actual prince has violated the original
contract. For surely so important a transaction as putting on
him a double crown, ought not to be regarded as simply po-
litical, but requires the consent of the church—acting, now that
there is no prince, by its organic powers. And of the viola-
tion of contract the country must judge.
The true view, however, would seem to be that, in the na-
ture of a spiritual religion like Christianity, which has exter-
nal relations also, there is a department where it is independent,
and another where it must either be controlled by state law or
control the state. Practically, if all the people belong to one
church, there must be such a division between the work of
the political and that of the ecclesiastical functionary, that they
.shall not invade each other's province. Much more, when
free thought, united with narrowness of mind, a speculative
spirit, and a scrupulous conscience, produces diversity of
sects, there needs to be a separation more complete between
the two powers, lest by attempts at uniformity the state,
aided by a part of the people, produces such bitterness be-
tween different theologies or ecclesiastical forms, as shall
seriously endanger the peace, if not the stability of a country.
Hooker's theory, almost of course, leads to persecution.
Hooker's views of the power of a church in things indiffer-
ent, contrast favorably with the narrow adherence of the puri-
tans to the letter of Scripture, and this, with his great breadth
of thought in general, and his advocacy of an ecclesiastical
doctrine which lay at the basis of the English establishment