482 POLITICAL SCIENCE.
remain distinct and independent. The result from all we have
seen was this, that the puritan principle established an im-
perium in imperio, and that Hooker's introduced persecution
Warburton then conceived of a relation between two inde-
pendent powers, a state and a church. How such indepen-
dence came to begin he nowhere tells us, if I am not deceived •
and as Christianity was not coeval with the societies where it
flourished, it could only have come into a given state by suf-
ferance or by some superior power. But, not to dwell on this,
he conceives of civil society as laboring, when it was alone,
under several defects. Its laws could only restrain from open
transgression and often were unequal to that result; it is gen-
eral in its operations, while the care of religion is for particu-
lars ; it could make laws for perfect, but not for imperfect
obligations [i.e., duties] and their infraction, and it actually
increased and inflamed the inordinate appetites of a state of
nature for whose correction it was invented and introduced.
Society again can punish, but it cannot (in any adequate de-
gree and measure) reward. This only religion can do, and
thus is necessary to civil government (B. I. to chap. iv.).
The end of civil society is security to the temporal liberty
and property of man. The end of religion is the salvation of
the soul by means of doctrine and morals, which, equally with
the end, must be outside of the province of the civil magistrate.
This maxim, however, that doctrine and moral opinion are
not within the magistrate's sphere, must be qualified by ex-
cepting from it the being and providence of a God, and the
natural essential difference between good and evil. These
are excepted, because they are the very foundation and bond
of civil policy. He then endeavors to set forth the causes
which have concurred in producing mistakes in regard to the
magistrate's real office.
The end of religion is to procure the favor of God, and to
advance and improve our own intellectual, i.e., our inward,
as opposed to our animal nature. It leads to a religious
society, which by its nature is sovereign and without depend-