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ence on the civil. This religious society, however, has not
in and of itself any coercive power of the civil kind. Coer-
cion is unnecessary and unfit for the attainment of the good
which religion proposes. As to the objection that purity of
worship, being outward practice, can properly be supported
by coercive measures, he admits thus much : that a religious
society has and must have in itself the power of expelling
refractory members from its body, or, in other words, a right
of excommunication (i., ch. 5)-
In Book second, Warburton discusses that union between
church and state which produces a religion established by law.
It is an alliance by free convention and mutual compact be-
tween parties, one of which cares only for the body, the other
for the soul. Each party had motives of its own in making
this alliance. The magistrate or the state had for its motives
to preserve the essence and purity of religion, to improve its
usefulness and apply its influence in the best manner, and to
prevent the mischief which in its natural independent state it
might occasion to civil society. The motive of the church
could be no other than security from external violence. Two
other conceivable motives—to engage the state to propagate
the established religion by force, and to obtain from the state,
honors, riches, and powers—Warburton dismisses, the one as
unjust, the other as impertinent.
From the fundamental articles of the alliance—which are
that the church shall apply its utmost influence in the service
of the state, and that the state shall support and protect the
church—are to be deduced the terms and mutual grants of
the alliance. From the obligation of the church proceeds a
settled maintenance for the ministers of religion, and an eccle-
siastical jurisdiction with coactive power, which introduce the
dependency of the clergy on the state. From the state's
obligation to protect the church proceeds the ecclesiastical
supremacy of the civil magistrate, " which again introduceth,
on the other hand, the right of churchmen to a share in the
legislature." Thus, the church receives from the state a public
endowment for-its ministers, a seat of the bishops in parlia-