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484                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
ment, and a jurisdiction by coactive power for reformation of
manners. The second point—which touches not the general
argument, but the special case of the church of England—is
thus defined : that the bishops sit as guardians of the church
and barons of the realm ; as part of an estate and not a sepa-
rate estate by themselves, and by a right which would termi-
nate with the termination of the alliance. The third point__
the privilege of jurisdictidn for reformation of manners—is
thus qualified, that no matters of opinion and no civil matters
which the temporal courts can inspect properly come under
it; that the clergy are themselves under the civil laws; and
that the ecclesiastical courts are dependent in the last instance
on the civil.
On the other hand, the state by this alliance receives su-
premacy in matters ecclesiastical. Hence, no ecclesiastic can
exercise his functions without approbation of the magistrate,
nor any church assembly sit without his permission, nor any
member of the church thus established be excommunicated
without his consent.
In another chapter he seeks to show that the Christian reli-
gion is of all others best fitted for such an alliance with the
state as may be most productive of their mutual advantage,
and that of all establishments the church of England is the
most perfect. This, as not essential to the general argument,
we omit, and pass on to the third book, where test-laws are
defended. At the beginning of this book he defines a test-
law to be " some sufficient proof or evidence, required from
those admitted into the administration of public affairs, that
they are members of the religion established by law." Here
it occurs to him that there may be at the time of the alliance
more than one religion. Which of these shall the state take
as its partner? Warburton1 answers unflinchingly the largest;
the largest being more nearly on an equality with the state than
the rest, as well as,having better ability to answer the ends of
the alliance and swaying by its influence the -greater number.
Yet full toleration is to be given to the minor religions, with
the restriction of a test-law to keep them from hurting that