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486                              POLITICAL  SCIENCE.
disappeared from the English constitution, which it was the
aim of the wojk to defend, and since an establishment may
be sustained without themóbetter, as experience seems to
have shown, without than with them.
The conception of an established church in this treatise is a
very low one, and would commend itself to no earnest mind.
Let the state choose the strongest church, whatever it be,
hedge it around with law, especially defend it by a test-law;
this is all. Could this satisfy the claims of any Christian con-
fession ? The church is thus the creature of the state, liable
to be cast off if it loses its relative superiority to other tolera-
ted religious bodies, and put into its position because it serves
the state's purposes.
The toleration conceived of is a step beyond the old condi-
tion of sectaries, thanks to the tolerant but indifferent age
of Locke. But the principle of the test-laws must allow not
only the exclusion of those who do not belong to the estab-
lished church from a share in the government,, but also the
punishment of all who undertake by writing or action to seek
to weaken the establishment.
It is not true that a church, as independent as any large
community in the state can be, must needs be an imperium
in imperio. It is protected within its own sphere of action;
but if it go beyond the law, some individual transgresses the
law oh its behalf and is punishable. It can hold properly,
landed or other, unless the state forbid, and if it is accumulat-
ing too much in its hands, the law can prevent this as the
laws of mortmain prevented it. Several churches within the
state would each prevent the other from becoming an imperi-
um in imperio. Warburton, again, seems not to have thought
it possible that the alliance which he favors would tend
to frustrate the good he has in view. But it certainly may
be true that spiritual ends contemplated in the existence of a
church, and the great help it can afford to the state if it keeps
to its purity, may not be as likely to be realized, if by its alli-
ance with the state it is able to put on dignity and worldly
magnificence, if its higher clergy are barons and peers in par-