THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION. 487
liament ; as if it were engaged in the simple work to which
it is called of being a guide to the souls of men towards a
Dr. Arnold's views we gather principally from a fragment
opinion on the church, written in 1839-1841, but pub-
on church and state. nshed after his death, which occurred in 1842.
In the second edition (1845), two appendices are added.
This is tbut a part or a prelude to a longer work which this
admirable man had in contemplation. Briefly expressed, they
are these : that as the object of Christian society includes
both the improvement of the life of its members by the means
and motives which the gospel supplies, and also the increase
of the society beyond its existing bounds until it become uni-
versal, so great an extent of plan requires " that it should be
a sovereign society or commonwealth ; " for as long as it is
subordinate or municipal, it cannot fully carry its purposes
into effect. On that supposition two powers, the one pos-
sessed of wisdom, the other of external force, act together on
the whole of our being and often in opposition to one another.
This power and wisdom ought normally to be united ; " the
Christian church should have no external force to thwart its
beneficent purposes, " and " government should not be poi-
soned by its internal ignorance and wickedness/* so as to
" advance the cause, of God's enemy rather than perform the
part of God's vicegerent." This is the perfect notion of a
Christian church, that " it should be a sovereign society,
operating therefore with full power for raising its condition,
first morally, then physically ; operating through the fullest
development of the varied faculties and qualities of Its several
members, and keeping up continually as the bonds of its
union, the fellowship of all its people with one another through
Christ, and their communion with him as their common.
head" (pp. 4-12).
With this notion of a Christian church are inconsistent : first,
the system tl in which a very few of its members are active,