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488                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.
and the great mass passive, or popery in all its shapes,
Romanist or Protestant; " and secondly, " the taking of any
part or parts of human life out of its control, by a pretended
distinction between spiritual things and secular," a heathen-
ish distinction, "which tends to make Christianity, like the
religions of the old world, not a sovereign discipline for every
part and act of life, but a system of communicating certain
abstract truths, and for the performance of certain visible
rites and ceremonies " (p. 13). Under the first of these two
heads the error culminates in the notion of a priestly class or
order in Christianity, which Arnold undertakes to refute in
the remainder of this unfinished work (pp. 24-132). In the
appendix, his views on the relations of church and state,
which would have followed apparently under the second head
mentioned above, are expressed in several fragments. In
his plan of a work on " Christian Politics " belonging to 1832,
after speaking of the evils and causes of dissent, and of the
pretended remedies for it, of which he names two—disestab-
lishment, and absolute equality of dissenters with churchmen
in civil rights, by which latter their separation from the es-
tablishment would be confirmed and increased,—he comes to
the " true remedy.'1 This he considers to be "an enlarged
constitution of the Christian church of England, which is the
state of England." We may find out his meaning in these
words from another fragment written in 1833-34 (pp. 167 et
seq.). The "great errors which" "he here purposes" to
combat are two ; one relating to the state, and the other to
the church. "The first is that the state, as such, is of no
religion," " that its business is simply to look after the bodies
of men; to provide for the security of their persons and
property; and that, therefore, it may and ought to leave the
concerns of religion to individuals, and to make no public pro-
vision for its maintenance." The premise and conclusion here
have been generally held together, although Warburton held
the premises and advocated the association of an established
religion by the state with itself as an ally. But in reality
the state employs its services as it would the services of medi-