THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION. 493 becomes Christian, seeks man's highest happiness, since the cessation of miraculous gifts, with deficient power." "It is constantly thwarted by not possessing the power of out- ward dominion. But the state is capable of receiving the knowledge of the church, whereas it cannot part with its es- sential attribute, nor is the church fitted to exercise it. Thus the state, having been enlightened by the knowledge of the church, becomes a society seeking the same end which the church sought, and with the same knowledge, but with more extensive means of attaining it, because its inherent sove- reignty gives it a greater power over outward things. And this was my meaning," says he, '* when I said that in a coun- try where the nation and government are avowedly and essentially Christian, the state or nation was virtually the church." Until such an ideal state of society becomes a reality, the church must obviously be separate from the state in such a sense that its interests are not the same, and it often has to resist the state's injustice. But even when the state is per- fectly Christian, will it follow, because the state is in perfect harmony with the church, that therefore they are identically one ? Or will it even follow that the state will then absorb or supersede the church ? The notion of such unity seems to be derived from Hooker, but to be put in a peculiarly beautiful light by Arnold, and his bright ideal misleads him. The true statement is, that as every state has its own local sphere, so it has its sphere of work and action, beyond which, within its territory, it ought not to pass. So the church has its sphere, while Christian society and the motives forming character are universal. The instinctive sense of what is his part will confine the perfect man within his own department, and the same good sense will adjust the limits between state and church action; but a perfect state of society would not remove or obliterate the limits, for they are founded in the nature of man as a creature under law and under religious obligations.