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494                              POLITICAL  SCIENCE.
Mr. W. E,  Gladstone, in 1838, published his treatise on
Gladstone on the  "the  state in its relations with the church"
relations of church            .                                                                                                          >
and state.             which  soon  passed   through  several  editions.
We use the fourth (2 vols., 1841). It is a thorough practical
treatise, and after an introduction giving some of the prevalent
theories held in England in regard to these relations, considers
the following points : the duty, the inducements, the ability
of the state in respect to religion ; the function of the state in
the choice and in the defence of the national religion ; the
subsisting connection between the state of the United King-
dom and the church of England and Ireland ; the reformation
as it was related to the doctrine and practice of private judg-
ment; this doctrine and practice of private judgment, as it is
related to the union between church and state. These are
followed by details of the existing administrative practice in
ecclesiastical affairs, and a chapter on the ulterior tendencies
of the movement towards the dissolution of the connection
between church and state.
Mr. Gladstone's theory in regard to this connection, in its
leading outlines, may be stated as follows. A common life
demands a common religion, in order to balance its dangers
and tendencies towards positive evil There are two forms
of common life according to nature, the family and the state.
The state has a moral office and a conscience or state duty,
" and the lawgiver has the same need to be ethically instructed
as the individual man " (chap, ii., 69). " Religion is appli-
cable to the state, because it is the office of the state in its
personality to evolve the social life of man, which social life
is essentially moral in the ends it contemplates, in the subject-
matter on which it feeds, and in the restraints and motives it
requires ; and which can only be effectually moral when it is
religious. Or, religion is necessary to the right employment
of the state as a state " (chap, ii., 74). And the nation, in-
asmuch as it "fulfils the great conditions of a person, a real
unity of being, of deliberating, of acting, of suffering, and
these in a definite manner and upon an extended scale, and
with immense moral functions to discharge, and influences to