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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

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exercise both upon its members and extrinsically," has there-
fore such a " clear, large, and conscious responsibility as can
alone be met by its specifically professing a religion, and
offering, through its organ, the state, that worship which
shall publicly sanctify its acts " (ib. 87). All this is con-
firmed, when the state is felt, under the teachings of the scrip-
tures, to be a divine ordinance and eminently such, and when
religion appears in the distinct form of the Christian revela-
tion. Moreover, as Christianity is a principle of life, intended
to govern and pervade all life, must it not govern and pervade
our human common life, our association in the family and in
the state ? The state and the church have both of them
moral agencies. But the state aims at character through con-
duct; the church at conduct through character; in harmony
with which the state forbids more than it enjoins, the church
enjoins more than it forbids. *
" The powers of church and state are coordinate; and
each is ordained to ends included within the purview of the
other. The state is a moral being and must worship God
according to its nature : it is thus intrinsically competent to
promote the ends of religion and extrinsically it has effective
means of aiding them; in both respects it is morally bound
to render that assistance. As on the other hand the ministry
of religion, whether under its general or its Christian idea, is
able in many ways to promote the purposes of the state "
(ib., 102).
A union by law being assumed between state and church,
what shall that church be? Mr. Gladstone says that "on
any other  than specifically Christian  principles, the human
* But the state's immediate sphere is jtiral, and obligation consists
chiefly in not violating rights. It could not be otherwise, unless the
state's sphere were so enlarged as to include all moral, nay, all religi-
ous teaching also within its province. On the other hand the religious
teacher says : li man, who made me a judge or a ruler over you," and
11 render unto Caesar the things that are Cfesar's, and unto God the
things that are God's." He supplies motives for all right action, es-
pecially for right action in the state, but does not act as an officer of
the state.