THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION. 495 exercise both upon its members and extrinsically," has there- fore such a " clear, large, and conscious responsibility as can alone be met by its specifically professing a religion, and offering, through its organ, the state, that worship which shall publicly sanctify its acts " (ib. 87). All this is con- firmed, when the state is felt, under the teachings of the scrip- tures, to be a divine ordinance and eminently such, and when religion appears in the distinct form of the Christian revela- tion. Moreover, as Christianity is a principle of life, intended to govern and pervade all life, must it not govern and pervade our human common life, our association in the family and in the state ? The state and the church have both of them moral agencies. But the state aims at character through con- duct; the church at conduct through character; in harmony with which the state forbids more than it enjoins, the church enjoins more than it forbids. * " The powers of church and state are coordinate; and each is ordained to ends included within the purview of the other. The state is a moral being and must worship God according to its nature : it is thus intrinsically competent to promote the ends of religion and extrinsically it has effective means of aiding them; in both respects it is morally bound to render that assistance. As on the other hand the ministry of religion, whether under its general or its Christian idea, is able in many ways to promote the purposes of the state " (ib., 102). A union by law being assumed between state and church, what shall that church be? Mr. Gladstone says that "on V any other than specifically Christian principles, the human * But the state's immediate sphere is jtiral, and obligation consists chiefly in not violating rights. It could not be otherwise, unless the state's sphere were so enlarged as to include all moral, nay, all religi- ous teaching also within its province. On the other hand the religious teacher says : li man, who made me a judge or a ruler over you," and 11 render unto Caesar the things that are Cfesar's, and unto God the things that are God's." He supplies motives for all right action, es- pecially for right action in the state, but does not act as an officer of the state.