THE STATE S RELATIONS TO RELIGION. 499 -changeable, half-human entities and the infinite being; with disgust on mythologies such as have been shaped by human imaginations, and on the embodying of religious thought in material forms for purposes of worship. There is such an entire opposition between the two systems that they can scarcely exist side by side. One or the other must take pos- session of the state and rule alone. Christian monotheism differs from Jewish and Mohammedan Nature of Christian -- at least in degree — in this, that by the grand ky produces diver- . nces of opimon. doctrines of the incarnation and of redemption it has awakened the human mind to inquire into problems far transcending human speculative power, and for which the sacred books provided no solution. Thus, as man will specr ulate, there have been divergences of opinion on sundry meta- physical points, some of them called orthodox, some hetero- dox, which, owing to their connection with the moral-religious parts of Christianity, have had a great importance attached to them, or in their own nature are possibly hostile to the central ideas of the system. In addition to this, in the New Testament we find only the cruda exordia of church govern- ment, on which new institutions, with extremely slender au- thority for them in the apostolic records, have been built up. HencQ, especially, more earnest discussions and more com- plete separations have proceeded f which the claims of conscience and of private judgment in religious matters have helped forward ; some contending that nothing besides what is found in the New Testament can serve as a rule of church order ; others that whatever is not contrary to the words or spirit of Scripture can be engrafted on the forms of outward religion ; and others still that the church as a unity, being ani- mated by the spirit of God, can explain or develop doctrine and enact rules for practice. And when we add to these causes of division those which arise from the different signifi- cations given to the two simple rites instituted by Christ, we see that many differences of opinion, some of them irrecon- cilable, some attacking the authority of the state, have arisen in the world out of the simple gospel of the New Testament.