500 POLITICAL SCIENCE. All this shows the grandeur and richness of Christianity- Evils of union of that ifc is to° Sreat in its conceptions to be church and state. grasped by the human mind, and is capable of taking many forms with one substratum. But does it not show also that state laws, founded on distinctions derived from orthodoxy or from a certain standard of church order, are nugatory—nay, rather that they must intensify dissension into bitterness, divide society, and perhaps threaten the very ex- istence of the state ? That (with all this) in certain circum- stances a state church on a free footing for dissenters maybe endured, or may be a blessing, is admitted. But let us look, at what state laws touching religion have done or left undone. , They have influenced national policy disastrously, so that the leading causes in the war with the Albigenses, the Huss- ite war, the thirty years' war, the English rebellion, were religious. It does not seem probable that mere differences of confessional opinion, for instance, in the thirty years' war, would alone have brought on that scourge of Germany; but the connection of the churches with the state certainly had much to do with the evil. They have forced compliance with ceremony and ritual; and punished, even with death, persons who wrote against the state churches. In England, for a long time they shut out men from parliament—men otherwise qualified for serving the state—by the condition of taking the sacrament according to the forms of the English church. This act, it is true, was continually suspended in order to admit conscientious dissent- ers into the Commons; but it was a farce and a shame to keep such a law on the statute-book, if it ought not to have been put in force. They have also shut out from the privi- leges of taking degrees in the universities all who could not profess a faith in the articles of the established church. They have established a church to which scarcely a half of the inhabitants who go to church belonged. They have intensified religious rancor and hatred among the people, by lowering the estimation of dissenters and mak- ing them socially an inferior class.