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502                             POLITICAL SCIENCE,
account of religion. In Massachusetts and Connecticut, where
there were unusually mild religious laws, and hardly a dissenter
was found among the original colonists, more than half the
existing churches now belong to other denominations. It is
the same with Virginia.
These laws have shown little forethought for the religious,
wants of the poor. In England, during the great changes
consequent on the growth of manufactures, some of the old
parishes increased immensely in population, without any ade-
quate provision for the new religious wants of the lower
classes. This vacuum, happily, was filled in part by the dis-
senting sects. Thus the great argument for establishments,
that the poor would otherwise grow up in godless degrada-
tion, does not appear to have much force. As great an
amount of destitution, at least, has been left unprovided for
in London and the large towns of England as in the fast-
increasing towns of this country, where more difficult prob-
lems, arising from the, influx of foreigners of various national-
ities, are to be encountered.
Nor have establishments kept down unbelief either in the
upper or lower classes, as both the Catholic and Protestant
countries of continental Europe make it abundantly mani-
Nor, again, have established churches secured discipline
and purity of Christian life even among communicants. la
the seventeenth century, Leighton, after his retirement into
England from his see, while he thought that the English;
church was the best constituted in the world in relation to
doctrine, worship, and the main part of government, Looked
on it, with relation to the ecclesiastical courts and the pastoral
care, as one of the most corrupt he had ever seen. Be
thought, says Bishop Burnet, whose words I have used, "we
looked like a fair carcase of a body without a spirit."
And indeed the best movements for the good of the church
of England have proceeded, not from authority, but from
voluntary effort. We need only refer to the vast sums con-
tributed by members of the established- church within