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504                            POLITICAL  SCIENCE.

ing bequests for religious objects  in articulo mortis invalid
at least beyond a certain amount ( 121).

There is one relation between the state and the church of a
Attitude of prot- very practical nature at present, which needs to
estants towards the   ,               . .         j  i        -,      ir        -r^       ,1           , .   ,
church of Rome. be considered by itself. It is that which exists
between all Christian states, especially those in Europe,
and the religious power of the Roman pontiff. In the
United States we can look on this question with some uncon-
cern and impartiality, for every encroachment, or seeming
encroachment, on the constituted order, every movement on
a large scale, requiring combination of Catholics, would unite
all Protestants together ; and these, being sixto one Catholic,
could control elections ; so that the real danger might be that
in the contention of parties the Catholics would not have
their fair rights. No exercise of spiritual power to the in-
jury of the state could be of any effect unless there were
some one in the country itself to carry it forward. If in
the attempt he should do anything unlawful, he could be
punished. If he exercised his lawful rights as a citizen in
the way of proselytism, others must exercise theirs in con-
travention of his endeavors.
But it is conceivable that, in order to break the tie between
his co-religionists and their civil rulers, the pope should adopt
anew the old measures, so long laid aside, of excommunicat-
ing princes, laying lands under an interdict, and stirring up
subjects to acts of disobedience. If the vast body of the
people were with the prince and the state power, all that
could then take place would be unlawful acts, separate or
combined, each demanding the same treatment as any other
act in violation of law. No new law need be passed. But
perhaps there has been a connection more or less close be-
tween the Catholic church and the country in question. If
in such circumstances an attack should be made on state in-
stitutions, and the struggle became one of life and death, the
government would be compelled to do what so many have