528 POLITICAL SCIENCE. willingness to forego those relaxations from care which would partially relieve the gnawing of unsatisfied desire and discon- tent. Under the sway of such eager hopes many, stretching themselves beyond their capacity, or overtaken by public ca- lamities, lose what they gained. Nor is the hopefulness and restlessness in a democracy confined to business pursuits. As all offices are open to all, the aspirants are by far beyond the number that can succeed. This is one of the causes that act on party and the management of political affairs in this country, of which we shall have occasion to speak in another place. The same causes act in monarchies and aristocracies where all can rise into wealth or distinction, or, at least, where there are no disabilities imposed on individual effort by the con- stitutions. But there is here more stability of social position; the laborer's child grows up expecting to pursue his father's craft, and a certain caste-like*form is given to life. Hence one recognizes here these distinctions of class by distinctions of dress and manners, of speech and turn of thought, while in a country of entire equalities individuals may differ vastly, but the dividing lines of ranks or conditions are far less marked. There is thus, although no hereditary line, yet a fence which it requires more than ordinary courage and hope to pass over. Many instances may be given, indeed, of men with small advantages from birth rising from an humble or a middle condition by success in business or manufactures, or by professional or military skill; but these are exceptions rather than rules, in states where settled orders exist. One cause of their fewness is, perhaps, the neglect of the education of the lower classes which once existed in countries where poli- tical and social inequalities are marked.* * It ought to be added that political institutions are not the only causes of energy, restfulness, and covetousness, nor can they alone give rise to these qualities. Where profits are large and land cheap, the stimulus to industry will be great; where land grows dear and profits fall, there will be more patience and less of a speculative spirit This state of things may exist under any form of government, It is plainly the best condition for the morals of a people.