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528                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
willingness to forego those relaxations from care which would
partially relieve the gnawing of unsatisfied desire and discon-
tent. Under the sway of such eager hopes many, stretching
themselves beyond their capacity, or overtaken by public ca-
lamities, lose what they gained. Nor is the hopefulness and
restlessness in a democracy confined to business pursuits.
As all offices are open to all, the aspirants are by far beyond
the number that can succeed. This is one of the causes that
act on party and the management of political affairs in this
country, of which we shall have occasion to speak in another
The same causes act in monarchies and aristocracies where
all can rise into wealth or distinction, or, at least, where there
are no disabilities imposed on individual effort by the con-
stitutions.    But there is here more stability of social position;
the laborer's child grows up expecting to pursue his father's
craft, and a certain caste-like*form is given to life.    Hence
one recognizes here these distinctions of class by distinctions
of dress and manners, of speech and turn of thought, while in
a country of entire equalities individuals may differ vastly,
but the dividing lines of ranks or  conditions  are far less
marked.    There is thus, although no hereditary line, yet a
fence which it requires more than ordinary courage and hope
to pass over.    Many instances may be given, indeed, of men
with small advantages from birth rising from an humble or a
middle condition by success in business or manufactures, or by
professional or military skill; but these are exceptions rather
than rules, in states where settled orders exist.    One cause
of their fewness is, perhaps, the neglect of the education of
the lower classes which once existed in countries where poli-
tical and social inequalities are marked.*
* It ought to be added that political institutions are not the only
causes of energy, restfulness, and covetousness, nor can they alone
give rise to these qualities. Where profits are large and land cheap,
the stimulus to industry will be great; where land grows dear and
profits fall, there will be more patience and less of a speculative
spirit This state of things may exist under any form of government,
It is plainly the best condition for the morals of a people.