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individual has more of relative importance to the public than
elsewhere, patriotism will be most intense; but the concep-
tion of one great country, with one language, under one law,
with one set of institutions, makes amends for this. The
interests to be protected under modern governments are so
vast and so precious, that the feeling acquires a great support
from this source also. The old watchword,/r0 aris etfocis,
receives new energy in Christian lands, where multitudes
cling with a love unknown of old to the family and the church,
and where many other unions add value to the thought of
As for public spirit, we may say, I think, that it varies
somewhat with the ease or difficulty of acquiring fortunes.
Thus, in a, where the profits of capital are great,
a man will readily relinquish a portion of what he has earned
for public enterprises ; and to this should be added that pub-
lic spirit suggests a way of distinguishing one's self, where all
are otherwise equal. The amazing sums of money that have
been consecrated to public objects, educational, charitable,
and religious, in the United States, may be assigned in part
to this motive ; but the benevolent and religious spirit also
exert a great power.
9. The tendency towards multiplying associations for vari-
ous purposes increases with the increase of freedom. Of
course, where the government fears the people, it will put a
curb on political clubs, and there will be a general slowness
in undertaking great works requiring joint action and joint out-
lay. You might account for this movement towards common
enterprises by the vast capital accumulated in the world—
above all, in old commercial countries such as England and
Holland, as well as by the protection offered to capital in the
laws of all Christian states; but in countries where capital
is small and where there are openings for investment on every
side, the same spirit of association is manifest.
IO. The restless spirit engendered by perfect liberty of
movement, and the hope of bettering one's condition, leads to
change of place, to colonial enterprises, to the improvement