536 POLITICAL SCIENCE.
of the means of locomotion on the land and on the sea. The
Greeks, with the Phoenician colonies, the Italian republics,
England, the United States, are examples of enterprise en-
larging its own area and invading remote regions with unwea-
ried energy. In this roving spirit, to some extent, the family
ties which confine a man to the neighborhood of his kindred
lose their power. Yet the multitude of these settlers in dis-
tant quarters are binding a nation together, and we see in this
country how the feeling of relationship is a tie between the
east arid the west.
The opposite of most of what has been said will apply to
despotic states in the ratio of their despotic spirit. The
government is afraid of the people, and the people of the
government. Men are in a great degree devoid of enterprise.
The country people live in ignorance of remote parts of the
country and of remote regions. More courage, therefore,
and energy are needed in despotisms by the people to go
abroad for purposes of business, to found colonies, to under-
take public works, than would be called for under other poli-
ties, since the unknown and the distant are objects of fear.
Associations are discouraged by such governments lest they
should lead on to dangerous political combinations. Public
spirit and patriotism have no room to exist. Ranks are more
fixed ; the peasant stays on the land for many generations.
It would be regarded by the most enterprising in such a mo-
tionless condition too great a risk to leave their original homes
and employments. Between the classes of society there is a
great gulf fixed ; movements to overcome the barriers of birth
are frowned upon by the state, and aided by no political
habits. A general opinion, except on religious subjects, per-
vading all classes, is unknown. The encouragements to edu-
cate a family are few, and education must be directed by the
government. The poor are unable to acquire learning or to
rise into professional life. It would seem, then, that in des-
potisms, quiet, order, a stolid contentment, a certain rever-
ence for supreme power without love or confidence, must
pervade a community, unless the upper ranks and the mercan-