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tile classes be excepted. Despotisms may have their day of
transition into freedom when other nations shall Have worn
themselves out, but they must be receivers of what political
good other forms of government have laid up for future ages,
and they are now in their childhood.
ii. The laws in despotic and in free states will be con-
formed to the spirit of the polities themselves.    In this field,
which Montesquieu was the first to explore, we must content
ourselves with an observation or two on the political laws of
these opposite polities, or such as have a close connection
with the constitutions.    These laws will, it is plain, be in-
tended to secure the polities.    The instinct of self-preserva-
tion in a  despotism will be  expressed in preventing and
repressing all movements which would be alarming to the
government or to the existing dynasty, even if no suspicion
is felt of the temper of the people.    Lines will be drawn, if a
necessity is found for them, around every exercise of freedom
in the callings of life ; and a rigorous system of police will, as
we have  noticed  in  the little  tyrannies of Greece in the
Roman empire and in modern empires, have inspection over
all deviations from a certain fixed line which may excite sus-
picion     It is easy to see, and we have already noticed, what
rights of civil life will be most obnoxious to the spirit of
the government, and how much fear will be felt towards the
few political rights that are conceded to the people.
Yet even in despotisms there are breakwaters from old
institutions or from religions older, perhaps, than the despot-
ism itself, and there are changes from social causes which it
cannot escape, and probably cannot foresee When these
changes begin to be perceptible, fear may be awakened on
the ruler's part towards the nation, and then the proper con-
flict caused by apprehension  of change perplexing tyrants "
will become perceptible.* Law and administration will be
conformed to these new fears. In this conflict the worst side
* Comp what Dion Cass. makes Agrippa say to Augustus, lii.,
8 o "Thole who now live under.tyrannies are always in slavery
and always are plotting against their rulers.