INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL CAUSES. 537 tile classes be excepted. Despotisms may have their day of transition into freedom when other nations shall Have worn themselves out, but they must be receivers of what political good other forms of government have laid up for future ages, and they are now in their childhood. ii. The laws in despotic and in free states will be con- formed to the spirit of the polities themselves. In this field, which Montesquieu was the first to explore, we must content ourselves with an observation or two on the political laws of these opposite polities, or such as have a close connection with the constitutions. These laws will, it is plain, be in- tended to secure the polities. The instinct of self-preserva- tion in a despotism will be expressed in preventing and repressing all movements which would be alarming to the government or to the existing dynasty, even if no suspicion is felt of the temper of the people. Lines will be drawn, if a necessity is found for them, around every exercise of freedom in the callings of life ; and a rigorous system of police will, as we have noticed in the little tyrannies of Greece in the Roman empire and in modern empires, have inspection over all deviations from a certain fixed line which may excite sus- picion It is easy to see, and we have already noticed, what rights of civil life will be most obnoxious to the spirit of the government, and how much fear will be felt towards the few political rights that are conceded to the people. Yet even in despotisms there are breakwaters from old institutions or from religions older, perhaps, than the despot- ism itself, and there are changes from social causes which it cannot escape, and probably cannot foresee When these changes begin to be perceptible, fear may be awakened on the ruler's part towards the nation, and then the proper con- flict caused by apprehension » of change perplexing tyrants " will become perceptible.* Law and administration will be conformed to these new fears. In this conflict the worst side * Comp what Dion Cass. makes Agrippa say to Augustus, lii., 8 o "Thole who now live under.tyrannies are always in slavery and always are plotting against their rulers.