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others in purchasing the rarest manuscripts ; can educate art-
ists, and establish schools of art; can send explorers into all
parts of the world; can have expensive books on science
or art printed, which states dependent on tax-payers would
hardly venture to publish. All this they can do as easily as
constitutional monarchies, and with advantages superior to
those of any republics.
The fine arts stand on other ground.    Nations have special
endowments, for which we can no more account than for the
other qualities of races.    Hence, the freest race or nation may
be incapable of excelling in the fine arts, and the most des-
potic may have a turn for music, or architecture, or painting.
The English race, including the Anglo-American, is as yet
not highly gifted in this particular; although the latter, from
the mixture of nationalities in its composition, may reveal
hereafter an infusion of artistic genius.    But where capacities
and native tastes are equal, the free will surpass the despotic
societies • for the awakening of the mind will be greater, and
the opportunities within the reach of rising talent, greater.
Competition will be aroused by the success of the earlier ad-
venturers, and the nation will learn to value the arts in which
they have been successful."
§ 270.
All the learned professions need training-schools, where the
Relations of  a beginner can be taught to think for himself, un-
EME±±! der masters who are left free by the government
to propagate their opinions.    We may regard it as certain
then, that a free government, if it estabhshes professional
schools of its own, will leave the public teachers to themselves
so far as the vital interests of the state do not oppose such
freedom     The state will also cherish all the interests of sci-
ence and learning, and will give an adequate support to the
*As far as history proves anything touchingtoe capacities of dif-
As iar as lu&tuiy v.\~ and even aristocratic ones below
ferent states, it p acesjg'PjJ'j"1      for instance, below Athens;
free governments 5  »part» «OA      ^               causes ^
Venice and Milan    lo   Florence^ *        ^y            ^
under free tuition,