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540                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.
best masters. In a despotic state, learning and learned schools
will not be felt by the government to be of the first impor-
tance. There will be a natural jealousy of all free thought on
politics, history, law, and religion. Free teaching by men not
appointed or paid by the state will instinctively be frowned
upon. Young men will go forth from the learned schools
into life with little enthusiasm and little hope.
Among the professions, law, in its applications to life, may
be brought under despotical institutions into a finished sci-
ence, yet its spirit can hardly fail to carry out the spirit of
the government; but oratory will have no field to move in,
and no stimulus. This is an exercise of legal talent which
needs the forum, the jury, and the free assembly of legislators,
all of which are inconsistent with despotism. The medical
profession, for all that appears, could flourish nearly as well
under a despotical as under a free polity ; yet the theory can
hardly be developed and perfected, where the individual
physician feels a restraint from the members of his profession,
backed by the instincts of the government ; and the practice
will not be pushed forward in a sluggishly conservative peo-
ple. The clerical profession may be able in a despotism, as
members of an authorized church, to prevent invasions of
their ecclesiastical rights, but neither as men of learning, nor
as preachers, will they be able to go beyond a certain circle.
The state will keep them in leading-strings by paying them;
if they belong to a hierachical establishment, the heads of it
will be appointed by the rulers and be creatures of their will.
No advance in theology or pulpit eloquence can be expected.
Their chief function will be considered to be that of keeping
the people in order.
Scientific men may form as important a class in a despotic as
in a free government, both because they can be invited from
abroad, and because the physical and mathematical sciences
have no relations to the political and moral conditions of a
nation, except so far as freedom sends its stimulating power
into all employments and all classes.
That the literary class, poets, historians, writers on what-