CHAPTER XIV. POLITICAL PARTIES. In treating of political parties we shall not go beyond those Political parties, movements of this kind in which thought and its Thar nature. expression are free, that is, beyond countries which are already self-governing, or where the seed is sown and is sprouting for self-government.* In fact, parties, in the modern sense of the term, cannot be said to exist where there is no diffusive power of opinion, and when those who have common opinions on political subjects cannot carry their points by combined action, f In countries where knowledge and co-operation in public measures are very imperfect, there may be local dissatisfaction, strife between great men for places at court, and even wider movements, having their ori- * A work written by Prof. Wachsmuth, of Leipzig, entitled " Ge- schichte der Politischer Parteiungen," in 3 vols. (1853-1856), devoted to this subject of parties, begins almost with the creation of man. He devotes four pages to the United States, out of his nearly sixteen hundred. Cooke's Hist, of Party in England (1836, 3 vols.) is a valuable collection of facts. f " Party," says Mr. Burke (Thoughts on the Cause of the present Discontents ; Works, Bonn's ed., i., 375), " is a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavors the national interest upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed. For my part, I find it impossible to conceive that any one believes in his own poli- tics, or thinks them to be of any weight, who refuses to adopt the means of having them reduced to practice. It is the business of the speculative philosopher to mark the proper ends of government. It is the business of the politician, who is the philosopher in action, ^to find out proper means towards those ends, and to employ them with effect," etc.