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544                              POLITICAL  SCIENCE.

David and Solomon after the death of the latter, as an in-
stance of a conflict of party. We are unable to accept of
his classification. The oppressive taxes of Solomon un-
doubtedly gave birth to this dismemberment. It was dictated
by no desire to effect constitutional change in the kingdom,
nor was argument used to delay the issue ; but as soon as the
king's adverse answer to the petition or demand of the con-
gregation was made known, the rebellion broke out. Possibly
it would have been more acceptable to the northern tribes to
have the political capital nearer to the centre of the land, as
making the protection of all parts of the land more sure.
But no such wish appears in the annals, and no demand is on
record even of a council to control the sovereign. A word
and a blow were all.

There was, however, in the later times of the Jewish mon-
archy, a party of some continuance and with distinct ideas,
which they sought to carry by persuasion. The great ques-
tion of the later monarchy was whether the Eg3>pptian kings
were strong enough to help the Jewish kingdom against the
power of Assyria and of Babylon. The people, the kings,
many of the princes, priests and prophets, clung to Egypt
with a patriotic detestation, as they must have thought it,
against the more terrible eastern powers. On the other hand,
the prophet Jeremiah and some of the best men of the nation
saw the hopelessness of the struggle with a kingdom pos-
sessed of such resources as Babylon, and while they were no
friends to the new empire and were the truest patriots, they
counselled submission. The result showed their wisdom.


But we will not delay in order to speak of governments
Party dependent and societies where parties are transient and

on constitutional ad-                                                                               r    ,                      .,

not the necessary outgrowth of their constitu-

tions. The operations of parties are best seen where the
polity, if it do not require, at least encourages permanent
divisions of opinion, and combinations to carry them out in
peaceable ways, and where some diversity of interest neces-
sarily gives rise to the desire to control the policy of the gov-
ernment. Such constitutions may not be as yet wholly free;