POLITICAL PARTIES. 547 was in opposition to the principles of equal freedom on which our institutions rest, preferred to run the risk of breaking up the union rather than to encounter this threatening foe within its pale, and in so doing nearly ruined themselves and the country. Of all sentiments which, alone or in company with others, give life and heat to a party, the religious is the most power- ful. In the United States, through the entire separation be- tween the state and all churches, this cause of division is almost eliminated from our politics ; yet even among us the cohesion and concerted action of the Roman Catholics make that church an object of jealousy to the Protestant denomina- tion, and that the more readily because these move together without perfect union. Hence, from time to time its atti- tude and claims may become an element in our party con- tests. But where established churches exist, and more than one denomination is strong, religious differences can hardly be kept from entering into politics. The dissenters will be arrayed against the Church of England, because to that church the upper and more conservative parts of society belong, and because the principle of state support to religion is against the doctrines which are most cherished by the weaker denomina- tions touching the province of government. The Catholic church of Ireland, owing to historical causes, will generally take an attitude of hostility against that English party which especially represents and defends the established church, nor will the disestablishment of the Irish Episcopal church put a complete end to this hostility. So in Germany, the dependence which state support involves, and the independence which is a radical principle of the Catholics, must produce conflicts as long as the state system and Catholic claims continue as they are. To produce political peace where more than one church is strong, either there must be entire separation between the civil and the ecclesiastical interests, or there must be ser- vility of the church, and such a tyranny of the state as will bear hard upon one or another part of the system. And these grievances will have utterance through parties.