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POLITICAL PARTIES.                             547
was in opposition to the principles of equal freedom on which
our institutions rest, preferred to run the risk of breaking up
the union rather than to encounter this threatening foe within
its pale, and in so doing nearly ruined themselves and the
Of all sentiments which, alone or in company with others,
give life and heat to a party, the religious is the most power-
ful. In the United States, through the entire separation be-
tween the state and all churches, this cause of division is
almost eliminated from our politics ; yet even among us the
cohesion and concerted action of the Roman Catholics make
that church an object of jealousy to the Protestant denomina-
tion, and that the more readily because these move together
without perfect union. Hence, from time to time its atti-
tude and claims may become an element in our party con-
tests. But where established churches exist, and more than
one denomination is strong, religious differences can hardly
be kept from entering into politics. The dissenters will be
arrayed against the Church of England, because to that church
the upper and more conservative parts of society belong, and
because the principle of state support to religion is against the
doctrines which are most cherished by the weaker denomina-
tions touching the province of government. The Catholic
church of Ireland, owing to historical causes, will generally
take an attitude of hostility against that English party which
especially represents and defends the established church, nor
will the disestablishment of the Irish Episcopal church put a
complete end to this hostility. So in Germany, the dependence
which state support involves, and the independence which is
a radical principle of the Catholics, must produce conflicts as
long as the state system and Catholic claims continue as they
are. To produce political peace where more than one church
is strong, either there must be entire separation between the
civil and the ecclesiastical interests, or there must be ser-
vility of the church, and such a tyranny of the state as will
bear hard upon one or another part of the system. And
these grievances will have utterance through parties.