552 POLITICAL SCIENCE. Sometimes the history of party shows us several parties complicated fea, within one another, or side by side, crossing each tares of parties. the other's track> auci in great confusion mak- ing separate issues. This is owing to the fact that real abuses, as they seem to one party, affect the interests or the traditional feelings of a portion of its members, so that some cannot go as far as others, and cither withdraw or become neutral. An illustration is furnished by the history of the English civil wars in the time of Charles I. As Guizot remarks, the refor- mation of civil abuses was an end to a portion of the Puri- tans, and that of the religious abuses to another portion, both of whom were conscientious and acted on firm conviction. But if the civil abuses had been righted and security given for the future, many of the political Puritans would have accepted a church of England somewhat reformed and cur- tailed in the episcopal power. But there arose in this seeth- ing time multitudes of religionists who wished to base the state upon their several platforms, and behind all was the third party of the Scots. The presence of religious questions prevented compromise on any other scheme than that of per- fect freedom, which, in the existing state of things and of opinions, was impossible. Accordingly, numbers of the old leaders retire or change their policy, until something very un-English comes to pass,—the ablest general becomes the head of the nation. The Puritans of 1640 were not the Puri- tans of 1649. Most like to England in the relations of parties, as well as in the tendency to the practical in politics, was Rome. Here the questions were confined within narrower limits, but there was a progress forward, one party taking the lead of the other in this respect; and when a point was once settled, there was no going backward e,xcept in Sulla's temporary reaction. The optimates of Cicero's time, in their view of the constitu- tion and of the measures to be opposed or accepted, differed , from the patricians of the time soon after the expulsion of the kings, more than the Tories under Charles I. differ from the -.Tories now.