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SS4                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
have described, which will often render the choice of meas-
ures very difficult. Some of this difficulty will be removed
by outside gatherings of members, in which will be ascer-
tained how far the majority for a particular measure can be
calculated upon. Independent members also will be sounded.
In such cases there is great temptation to strike bargains, not
in the most barefaced way, but in a way still dishonorable for
both parties.
Every party has  its  principles, which, if it be  honest, it
what are and   means  to  carry,  and the leaders, if there  be
what are not party                                        '                                               J
questions.              such in fact, will redeem their pledges to  the
public, or incur the repute of dishonor.    In our country such
pledges, put together like so many planks in what is called a
platform^ are very often neglected.    The  reason  of this is
that no man of leading character is responsible for them,
There are in other countries, where party government pre-
vails, questions on which differences are so great that there is
no hope of carrying them within the party organism.    We
have already, while speaking of open questions, said that none
ought to be such which vitally affect* the character or pros-
perity of a country.    Now, the leaders or the followers may
seek to carry such questions not yet inscribed on the registers
of a party by all means in their power that are honorable,
with the help or against the opposition of the other party.
Such questions will relate   to   matters that have not been
drawn into politics, like most that touch on improvements in
the administration of law and justice, and the welfare of the
nation in its various interests.    But others are party questions,
where it is expected that the party will be united, and in de-
fence of which the ministerial leaders will stake their political
existence.    The practice, at  such times, in Great Britain is
reduced to a system.    The ministry resigns, and either a new
ministry acts with the same parliament, or a new parliament
is chosen to determine what party shall furnish the ministers,
In other constitutional governments the changes are not yet,
it is believed, so summary or absolute.    In our country no
such thing can take place, because the president stays through