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5$S                               POLITICAL  SCIENCE.

to make cowards of most men ; but when it becomes a moral
principle that a man, if a representative, owes it to his party
to vote with it through thick and thin, and is bound, if only
a private citizen, to support the regular candidate, there is a
turning of moral rules upside down which may corrupt the
character of a whole country.

In speaking of parties in the United States, I refer more
PartiesintheunitedParticularIy to parties formed on general ques-
States-                 tions relating to the administration of our na-
tional affairs. These, in fact, pervade the country, and make
minor differences less important. There will always be com-
binations in states or sections to carry something of local
interest, which may oppose for the time the general interests
of parties. But such divisions cease when they have accom-
plished their purposes, while the parties running through the
union are kept up, even when there is no reason for their
We have already seen that our parties were the result of
our constitution and of the great difference of interests or way
of thinking between the slaveholding and the free states.
For a few years the federal union needed all energy and abil-
ity to support it, and during this time power was lodged in
the upright federal party. Then it passed over to the demo-
crats, whose sway continued nearly all of the next sixty years.
Most of this. time it was southern leaders who shaped the
policy of the country, and it was these who, by resolving to
secede in 1861, brought on the war. At the restoration of
the union, the party which carried the war through to a suc-
cessful issue, and which may be called a second federal party
on account of some of the principles they were obliged to
adopt for the defence of the country, was entrusted with pub-
lic affairs and is at the, helm while we write ; but, owing in
part to difficulties which the war bequeathed to the country,
in part to the essential evils attendant on party management,
in part to the incapacity of the government, this party bids