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POLITICAL PARTIES.                           '   561
would be the opposition from his own party in the senate, or
from the cabinet, that few men could have the courage to
hold out in a steady course of following their own convictions
in circumstances like these. The senatorsór&v oi vvv ftporoC
ela-cv eTTiySoviot,ówould refuse to confirm his appointments
unless he confirmed theirs, and the question would be who
would hold out longest. Thus the rules of political morality,
never to remove a man who has done his part well from the
humbler offices of the government, and never to nominate
without proof of proper qualifications, which would prevent a
world of corruption, are practically impossible, because the
politicians who fill important places in congress will form a
kind of junto to aid each other and the friends of each other.
And, although the president has great official power, he has
little resisting power. They can trouble him far more than he
can trouble them. Unless made of angelic stuff or of iron,
he must yield. The multitude who have an interest in cor-
rupt politics are stronger than the one.
The progress of party tactics is illustrated especially by two
facts. The first is that, when the democratic party came into
power with the election of Mr. Jefferson, the removals were
fewóso few that single cases excited a sense of wrong through
a whole state. When Jackson followed John Quincy Adams
in 1829, they were far more numerous, although the political
change was little else than the displacement of one wing of a
party by another. Since then no party has thought of pro-
testing against removals on mere party grounds, and against
putting in the "friends "of the successful candidate. The
other fact is that a civil service bill was projected a few years
ago, in order to put an end to the worst of the effects of the
present custom. The president professed to view it with
favor. There was to be an'examination of persons proposed
for offices of inferior grades, and the successful candidates
were to be the seminary for higher offices ; or, at all events,
some check was to be put on the selection of candidates. But
senators opposed the plan, some cabinet officers refused to
have it apply within their bureaus, and at length it fell to
VOL. II.ó36