$62 POLITICAL SCIENCE.
nothing; the man who had consented to endeavor to make it
successful gave up the work in discouragement and mortifi-
If what we have said is true respecting the distribution of
offices in reward for political services, or in the hope of secur-
ing political supporters, it is plain that such a system must
require an organization of the whole country that it may be
successful. The extent to which such organization has gone,
and the means which have been adopted, are even startling.
The clerks in the departments in Washington have been called
on for contributions to defray the expenses of (t campaigns,"
as they are called, and have in some instances been sent home
to their respective states to vote. The local officers of the
general government have managed state elections, and have
mingled officiously in local politics. Meetings through the
states, on the greater or on the smaller scale, are called and
led by men of whom nobody knows anything which inspires
confidence, whose only gift is by means of underlings to get
at the ear of the lower stratum of the people. .These men a
party cannot afford to trifle with, for if they render no service
or become enemies of their party, it runs a risk of losing the
In state affairs, party is not generally so carefully watched
and managed as in national affairs, since the prizes are not so
great. It often happens that local questions separate frac-
tions of a party from the main body for a time, if not perma-
nently. But the same principle of reward for party services
is acted upon throughout, and it is impossible to disconnect
state and national politics for any length of time.
The management of parties by means of subordinate
leaders appears in the way in which the voters belonging to
foreign nationalities are made to act together. In a country
of equal rights it seems most unreasonable that foreign emi-
* While we are revising these pages, a new plan of civil service has
come in with a new administration, which, if the politicians are not
too strong for the heads of the government, will be an immense bless-
ing [March, 1877].