$62 POLITICAL SCIENCE. nothing; the man who had consented to endeavor to make it successful gave up the work in discouragement and mortifi- cation.* If what we have said is true respecting the distribution of offices in reward for political services, or in the hope of secur- ing political supporters, it is plain that such a system must require an organization of the whole country that it may be successful. The extent to which such organization has gone, and the means which have been adopted, are even startling. The clerks in the departments in Washington have been called on for contributions to defray the expenses of (t campaigns," as they are called, and have in some instances been sent home to their respective states to vote. The local officers of the general government have managed state elections, and have mingled officiously in local politics. Meetings through the states, on the greater or on the smaller scale, are called and led by men of whom nobody knows anything which inspires confidence, whose only gift is by means of underlings to get at the ear of the lower stratum of the people. .These men a party cannot afford to trifle with, for if they render no service or become enemies of their party, it runs a risk of losing the election. In state affairs, party is not generally so carefully watched and managed as in national affairs, since the prizes are not so great. It often happens that local questions separate frac- tions of a party from the main body for a time, if not perma- nently. But the same principle of reward for party services is acted upon throughout, and it is impossible to disconnect state and national politics for any length of time. The management of parties by means of subordinate leaders appears in the way in which the voters belonging to foreign nationalities are made to act together. In a country of equal rights it seems most unreasonable that foreign emi- * While we are revising these pages, a new plan of civil service has come in with a new administration, which, if the politicians are not too strong for the heads of the government, will be an immense bless- ing [March, 1877].