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POLITICAL PARTIES.                              563
grants should not be assimilated in a short time to the native
population. Why should a German or an Irishman retain
his nationality to such an extent as to claim a right, not as an
American citizen, but as a person born in a particular foreign
country, to have office on different terms from citizens of
native birth. Why, in other words, should any one claim a
right of partaking in office not merely as a citizen, but for the
additional reason that he was not by birth entitled to office.
The thing is preposterous. But then there is a certain tie
binding these citizens and their children—it may be their
remoter posterity, together ; and this tie of former nationality,
with the additional tie of a special religion in one case, ren-
ders it possible (nay, renders it easy) to band these classes of
citizens together. They can thus be managed as bodies, and
demagogues, seeing how great facilities are thus furnished
for their game, contrive to act as agents of politicians in
securing large masses of voters for their principals, and in
establishing claims of their own on the victorious leaders.
The same operation must go on where masses of* colored
people are exposed to the influence of crafty men of their
own color. Where voters are unable to cast an intelligent
vote there will be more or less of such political craft, and
demagogues of all demagogues least to be trusted.
A very important point In any political system, and one
deeply affecting the character of a self-governing people, is
the means taken to bring the names of persons thought of
for office before the constituencies. In a part of the country
it has long been felt to be an impropriety for a man to offer
himself as a candidate for public honors, as if such a public
expression of his desire were inconsistent with equality and
with modesty. And yet even where this opinion is held, the
immediate friends of a man will sometimes put him forward
against the party candidate, on account of some rebuff that
he has met with. The desire of punishing the party by at
least drawing away votes from it now justifies what is all but
self-nomination. But on the whole, in the northern and
eastern parts of the country, ncvmination through the regular