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57                            POLITICAL SCIENCE.
forms ; others act indirectly.    We will consider the former
which are fewer n number, first, and then pass over to the
We mention first, example, as propagated from place to
place. To this cause the Greek states, so many in so small
an area, were extensively subject. We cannot account for
the frequent tyrannies following one another in the age of the
earlier tyrannis, nor for the democratic revolutions after-
wards, by the existence of a common moving sentiment and
a similar condition alone. The news of revolution, as it
spread over Greece, added fuel to a fire all ready to burst
out; and so, oa the other hand, the news of their unfortunate
issue in particular cases may have damped the ardor of a city '
ready to change its polity. So, also, it is likely that the vari-
ous city institutions of the middle ages did not begin without
some knowledge of movements elsewhere, in the same direc-
tion. In modern times the example of England, its govern-
ment securing liberty and order, created, in a sense, the
" spirit of the laws,'* and preached constitutional government
all over Europe. Nor has the revolution of 1776, in this
country, been without a vast influence by way of example
over Spanish America, in Switzerland, and in France.
Still more potent are new political and politico-moral prin-
ciples. Few will deny that the modern doctrines of personal
rights, and of a people's self-governing right, whether in their
milder Anglican or more revolutionary French form, have had
a vast influence in aiding all other concurrent causes, such as
the feeling of being oppressed, discontent with the existing
government, and the struggles of orders. And although in
themselves they may be dead, being alone, yet when thus
employed as allies, they may remove scruples from the con-
sciences of many, and intensify the sense of wrong.
This doctrine of human rights and of human equality has
reached its greatest height of power in defending and redeem-
ing the colored race from slavery. Scarcely ever has an en-
slaved race been led to attempt its own liberation by the
mere feeling of being held in unjust bondage ; nearly all the