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POLITICAL CUA^t:S-                               583

t     u  u* toother  entrusted \vith the

bom and the mean  should b   to      ^   .^                  -

affairs and offices of the poly,                  as

between these extremes should be ""•                         «"• Pos

sible.    (to § 8.)                                      j.      .s to      k

A most i-portant point in cu) I       X                       uch

provision, by law and m other    )•          P ^                 ^

not be a source of gai.    LspeaJ'                      ?          -

they are allowed to pursue their private aairs quietly-
s they are, when they think that lie rulers arc .Baling the
public money. Then it is that they arc grieved, bo* because
Ly have no share in the offices and have none of the gams.
This evil will be prevented when the public posts are not
lucrative, for then the poor will not seek for them, and the
upper class will be unable to misuse them for purposes of gain,
and yet be ready to fill them as places of honor. And thus
the poor will become affluent, because they can glve their
attention to their own callings, and the upper class will not
be ruled by their inferiors. In order to prevent he stealing
of public money, let the handing over of the funds entrusted
to public officers take place in the presence of all the peo-
ple ; let copies of the accounts be lodged m the archives of
the tribes and other subdivisions of the state; and let appro-
priate honors be bestowed on those who have managed pub-
lic affairs without making office a source of gam. (to $ 11.)
In democracies the affluent ought not to be put to great
expense, nor even to be allowed to use their incomes in ex,
pensive but useless public services, such as taking the lead in
choragic shows, torch-races, and the like. In an oligarchy
much care should be taken of the poorer citizens, and offi-
ces be given to them from which they can recewe a salary;
and should any of the wealthy treat them with contumely or
outrage, the penalty ought to be g^ter than tf they should
so treat their own class In this polity, again, mhentances
ought not to go by donation, but only by birth, and the same
person ought not to be allowed to ««eive more than one in-