POLITICAL CHANGES. 585 which they take now ; for now, in some city-states, they take an oath in words such as these : "I swear that I will bear a hostile mind towards the demus," whereas they ought to act in just the contrary character, and swear, " I will not wrong the demus." (to § 20.) The most important rule for conserving a constitution, ac- cording to Aristotle, is that which, at his day, was entirely neglected—to conform the education to the character of the o polity. For there is no value in the most useful laws, agreed upon by all who live under a polity, unless manners and training are in conformity with it; looking towards the popular side if the constitution is popular, and towards the oligarchic side if it is an oligarchy. For the want of self- restraint belonging to an individual belongs to the state. To be educated, however, in conformity with a polity, is not to learn how to do that which would please the oligarchy or the democracy, but that by means of which one can live under an oligarchic or a democratic constitution. But, as things are now, the sons of rulers in an oligarchy live in luxury, while those of the poor become inured to bodily exercise and toil, which makes them more willing and able to engage in new political schemes. And in democracies, even the most demo- cratical, the interests of the state are not observed, on account of a prevailing false conception of liberty. Into this concep- tion two elements enter—that the majority should have the power, and that there should be liberty. Justice is thought to consist in equality, and equality means that whatever seems best to the majority that is to have force of law, while freedom and equality are made to consist in every .individual's doing as he will. But this is evil. For it ought not to be thought to be a slavery to live in conformity with the institutions, but a means of safety. (§§ 20-22.) In the very important book of his Politics of which we have given a partial sketch, Aristotle nowhere speaks of the recon- struction of a government already overturned by revolution, nor among his precepts for sustaining a government against revolutionary forces does he go much beyond rules of policy.