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prevent a struggle, and thus the wars of the parliament with
the king prevented the recurrence of the same calamities after-
wards. Nor are the previous usurpations and depositions of
kings—Stephen's seizure of power, the accession of the house
of Lancaster, that of the house of York, that of the Tudors—
called revolutions, although great changes were made by
force in the governing power.
Some revolutions, again, are carried on in such a spirit of
legality, that the administration of justice goes on during the
progress even of civil war. The justices went on their cir-
cuits, in the English strife between king and parliament, pro-
tected by military escorts, as if nothing had disturbed civil
order. In our revolution, there was no breaking up of the
existing governments, except at a few points ; the laws were
executed, legislatures met, taxes were levied; and it shows
in a striking light the respect for order among the people,
that until after the peace with England, there were no tumults
caused by the extreme distress of society, and scarcely any
conflicts between the loyalists and the party of the revolution.
In many of the modern revolutions, the governments have
Treatment of revo- promptly yielded, in the intention, no doubt, to
lurions  by govern-   ;    .         -       ,       -          11^,         r    i •                   10
meats.               bring back the old state ot things at the first
good opportunity.    An emeute in a capital, followed by a
flight of the court, the defection, perhaps, of a part of the
army, a provisional government, a new constitution—such
are some of the phenomena which startle a nation like a great
storm, and indeed are but political storms of short duration.
When they end, it is .the past political education of the peo-
ple, with its moral convictions, that determine whether the
revolution will recur again,  or whether the provisions for
order suggested by a nation's experience will prevent them in
the future.    These revolutions in the capital or in the large
towns indicate no general change In the feelings of society,
nor any general demand for the rectification of .real abuses.
They are rather the results of certain social or political theoT
ries, aiming at a theoretical change in a constitution, together
-with the reformation of the more glaring abuses in adminis-